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|E-IMET: Is It Accomplishing Its Human Rights Focus in Latin America?|
Ronald Harry Reynolds
Furthering democratization, the Expanded International Military Education and Training Program (E-IMET) conducted by the U.S. Departments of State and Defense seeks to further human rights. Case studies evaluated El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua including a review of U.S. government and nongovernmental reports and budgets, and a survey of previous students who attended 8 different U.S. military-sponsored courses selected for their human rights focus from 1991-2000. Findings inconclusive, but offered encouraging results that E-IMET, as a part of the overall U.S. grant program, facilitates human rights initiatives. Attendees appear to be the right persons for the subject courses who subsequently return to upwardly mobile positions with opportunities to influence their country’s future policies.
E-IMET: Is It Accomplishing Its Human Rights Focus in Latin America?
|The role of the Export Credit Agency in supporting arms transfers: a comparative analysis.|
Joseph Andrew Terrell
In an environment of shrinking defense budgets and increased Chinese influence and investment in the developing world, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) seeks to identify ways to maximize security cooperation opportunities with existing funding streams, making these programs more affordable; foreign military sales are a major component of the U.S. security cooperation program portfolio. The world’s major arms exporters, with the exception of the U.S., rely exclusively on their respective national Export Credit Agency (ECA) to facilitate competitive, and at times concessional, financial arrangements in order to secure business for domestic arms exporters. This paper performs a comparative analysis of how the U.S. and other major arms exporting countries, particularly China, utilize their ECA to facilitate arms sales, making the recommendation that the U.S. should reevaluate how it currently employs the Export-Import Bank as a measure to increase affordability of arms sales for developing nations in the current competitive environment.
The role of the Export Credit Agency in supporting arms transfers: a comparative analysis.
|US-Egyptian Relations since the Arab Spring: Balancing Interests and Values|
Dr. Vaughn P. Shannon, Ph.D and Joshua Cummins, M.A.
The United States (U.S.) has had an important strategic relationship with Egypt since the Camp David Accords of 1978. As a bulwark against Soviet expansionism during the Cold War, the guarantor of safe passage through the Suez Canal, and signatory to Arab-Israeli peace on Israel’s western front, Egypt brought many advantages...
US-Egyptian Relations since the Arab Spring: Balancing Interests and Values
|U.S. Security Cooperation in Foreign Policy: Looking Past Human Rights Paradigms|
Christopher Dias/James P. Toomey
On February 24, 2014, Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni signed an anti-homosexuality bill into law. In response, the Obama administration pulled approximately $6.4 million of foreign aid, which supported the Inter-Religious Council of Uganda (IRCU). The IRCU is an organization that publicly supports anti-gay legislation, yet has received millions of dollars in grants from the United States (US) to help fight HIV/AIDS. Nevertheless, and almost simultaneously, the Obama administration sent four special operations aircraft and additional special operation and service support troops to Uganda to continue international efforts linked to tracking down Joseph Kony and the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). Observably, there are inconsistencies in American foreign policy rhetoric and foreign aid allocation to a state that has undermined the civil liberties and human rights of its citizens. The purpose of this article is to highlight a need for research, which the authors intend to pursue in the coming months. The follow-on project will serve two purposes. First, it is intended to generally test competing theories of international relations, including realism, liberalism, and constructivism, to determine which theory supports the current American policy practices concerning sub-Saharan Africa. Second, it further hopes to analyze which specific factors, human rights practices or strategic significance, influence our foreign aid allocation, more specifically, security cooperation efforts.
Article on DISAM Journal Web Site
|Human Trafficking in the Indo-Asia-Pacific Region|
It has been stated by President Obama and acknowledged by many world leaders that trafficking in persons is a form of modern slavery that violates human rights, country security, economies, and public health in every state (State 2014). For this reason, the United States has been playing an active role in combating human trafficking at home and abroad in an effort to protect U.S. interests, security, citizens, and allies. Human Trafficking is a complex system that encompasses a wide variety of behaviors and actions. The United States simply defines trafficking in persons as ‘The use of force, fraud, or coercion to compel a person to provide labor, services or commercial sex. This includes elements of recruiting, harboring, transportation, providing or obtaining a person for the purpose of exploitation.' The three most common forms of trafficking that are recognized by the U.S. include Labor Trafficking, Sex Trafficking, and Child Soldiering (Defense 2014).
Article on DISAM Journal Web Site
|Considerations for the Future National Military Strategy|
Over the last twenty plus years, six different Chairmen of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) have laid out a National Military Strategy (NMS) for the U.S. Military Services to use as a guide to fulfill the President’s National Security Strategy (NSS) and the Secretary of Defense’s National Defense Strategy (NDS). In addition, early in its existence, the NMS developed a secondary purpose. It evolved to become an unclassified document to communicate with the American people, rather than just being internal military guidance. All six previous documents published addressed the current and future strategic environment. But just as importantly, they all addressed the force planning and resource allocation (sometimes with even recommendations to the Secretary of Defense) to achieve the U.S. military’s desired outcomes in those strategic environments. Resources and tools are variables to carefully consider in strategy development.1 In the current political and economic environment, now more than ever, the Department of Defense (DoD) and U.S. Military Services must be flexible in force structure and resource allocation to successfully achieve strategic objectives. The following discussion addresses three areas in support of creative resource allocation that should be addressed in the future NMS; Force Planning, Budget and Acquisition Processes, and Interagency Cooperation.
Article on DISAM Journal Web Site
|A Study of the Effectiveness of United States Security Assistance Training Programs in the Western Hemisphere|
The US Government (USG) engages with a variety of Latin American countries by offering Security Assistance Training opportunities through International Military Education and Training programs (IMET), Foreign Military Sales (FMS), and a variety of other programs authorized by the Foreign Assistance Act (FAA) and the Arms Export Control Act (AECA). These offerings include a spectrum of training ranging from Senior Professional Military Education, to technical training, to high cost aviation flight training, and serve as a support element to bilateral relations and the fielding of equipment purchased by or granted to allied and friendly countries. This research initiative focuses on the effectiveness of training programs with Latin American countries and evaluates results in terms of the three pillars of security cooperation, which encompass all Department of Defense (DOD) interactions with a foreign defense establishment. These are to (1) build relationships that promote specific US security interests, (2) develop allied and friendly military capabilities for self-defense and multinational operations, and (3) provide US forces with peacetime and contingency access to host nation.
A Study of the Effectiveness of United States Security Assistance Training Programs in the Western Hemisphere
|The Role of the Plan Colombia Helicopter Package in Strengthening the Legitimacy of the Colombian Government|
Mario E. Zaltzman
This thesis seeks to address the question of the specific role of the application of the Plan Colombia Helicopter Package (PCHP) in the context of the Colombian counter insurgency strategy, through the lens of the transformation of the Colombian political and security transformation between 1999 and today, in effecting repeatable outcomes that strengthened the legitimacy of the Government of Colombia (GoC).
The Role of the Plan Colombia Helicopter Package...
Social Media, Public Opinion, and
Security Cooperation in Saudi
Joshua I. Cummins
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been
experiencing a variety of cultural and social
changes over the past decade. There has been a
small relaxation in some religious laws, a push
for more rights for women, and even an increase
in popularity of the United States. A recent study
of public opinion in the Middle East over the last
10 years highlighted an interesting case in Saudi
Arabia. While Saudi public opinion of the US
was in 2003 among the lowest of the study, it
ranked among the highest in 2012 (Cummins,
2012). This poses the questions of what has
caused these changes in culture and attitudes
in Saudi Arabia that have not occurred in other
Middle Eastern or Arab countries and how these
changes affect US Security Cooperation and
overall relations with the United States.
Social Media, Public Opinion, and Security Cooperation in Saudi Arabia
|Assessing Security Cooperation: Improving Methods to Maximize Effects|
Daniel A. Linquist
Security cooperation professionals work towards the development of a standardized
assessment framework that not only provides the most complete data for recommendation
development, but also is compatible across geographic boundaries and interagency boundaries.
Across the inter-agency a common language does not exist when referring to the planning and
assessment process. In order to maximize the efficiency of US Government programs in security
cooperation around the globe, there must be some efforts to not only improve assessment, but also to
build some commonality among assessment frameworks and progress measures. This paper aims to
highlight some considerations when planning and implementing security cooperation and should
provide the reader with some critical-thinking tools to continue discussion with interagency partners
involved in security cooperation. The paper discusses assessment based on current policy, considers
strengths and weaknesses of three assessment or research methodologies, then current practices and
opportunities. Finally it provides some recommendations for further academic study and discussion.
Assessing Security Cooperation: Improving Methods to Maximize Effects